Epilepsy, a medical term for epilepsy, is an infectious disease affecting the nervous system, which is common all over the world. Although in some cases this painful disease disappears on its own, the majority of people continue to suffer from this disease throughout their lives. There is no age limit for epilepsy. However, according to a survey, the disease is more common in the elderly in high-income countries, while in developed countries, the incidence of maternal complications and infections in newborns is higher. Are affected. This rate of disease appears to change with age. This means that the incidence of the disease is higher in children and lower in adolescents, whereas the rate increases further in people over 65 years of age. It should be noted that due to timely diagnosis and proper treatment, the disease is eliminated in children, whereas 60 to 70% of patients recover from seizures and seizures as soon as they start taking anti-epileptic drugs. In patients, the disease sometimes increases and decreases. In some cases, seizures gradually subside after cessation of medication, but in 30 to 40% of patients, seizures do not cease, but continue at different intervals and increase in severity. It has also been observed that seizures end in some patients, but relapse after some time. This is due to ineffective drugs, excessive seizures before starting the medication, EEG (Electro Encephalo Graphy). These include seizures, epilepsy in family history, and psychological problems.
It has also been observed that epilepsy is the most common cause of death in patients, but 17% of patients die unexpectedly. Unexpected death means death that has no eyewitness, no injury to the patient and no evidence of drowning, death from seizures or without seizures and postmortem death Failing to state the cause of the disease. It should be noted that 10 out of one thousand patients die unexpectedly every year. If seizures are not controlled, the rate of unexpected deaths may increase. This can be an indication of how closely unexpected deaths are linked to epileptic seizures. In addition, drowning causes unexpected deaths. These include burns, watery lungs, pneumonia and suicide.
The most common cause of epilepsy is age, with 70 to 90% of patients having their first epileptic seizure before the age of 20. Epilepsy is divided into two main groups. One group is called primary and the other secondary. In patients in the primary group, seizures begin between the ages of 5 and 20, but in some cases, seizures may occur after the age of 20. A seizure that occurs for the first time and after the age of 20 is called secondary, for some reason or another. For example, heredity, complications during pregnancy or brain injury, such as birth injury, high or low blood sugar, liver or kidney failure, head injury, brain tumor, stroke, meningitis. Encephalitis), pus in the brain or TB of the brain. In addition, some drugs can cause epilepsy, so sometimes withdrawal seizures can occur even after giving up drugs. There are two types of epileptic seizures. The first type is called Partial Seizures in medical terms, in which the seizure is limited to one part of the brain, while the second type, Generalized Seizures, affects both parts of the brain. Factors that increase the severity of seizures include sleep deprivation, emotional stress and strain, physical and mental fatigue, infections and fevers, drug abuse and alcohol use, sitting in close proximity to bright lights and television. To diagnose, it is important to know if the patient’s seizure was really epileptic. In this regard, information is obtained from the family, because the patient is unaware of his condition before and during the visit. It is also very important to know that the tongue did not come under the teeth during the visit. Similarly, it is important for children to know whether the seizures are due to high fever or epilepsy. Are Febrile convulsions usually occur between the ages of 6 months and five years. In addition, one in three affected children later develop seizures due to fever. Although seizures are not as dangerous as epilepsy, 5% of children develop epilepsy when they grow up. Medication should be given on the advice of a physician to eliminate the seizures of fever and sponge bathing should be kept. Some physicians prescribe a specific drug (Diazepam) to be injected intravenously into children before a seizure, while some pediatricians recommend long-term use of anti-epileptic drugs in minor febrile seizures. In addition, infantile spasms occur suddenly in children and their duration is also short. In these seizures, children get convulsions in the back, arms, legs and neck. In such cases, 20% of the children die. While 75% of children are affected by learning and speaking. Also, more than 50% of children suffer from concussions later in life.
The EEG test is considered important for the diagnosis of epilepsy, as it is possible to diagnose not only epilepsy and its types, but also prescribe the right medication in the light of the test report. CT scans and MRI of the brain are not helpful for diagnosis, but they can be used to determine the cause of the disease. Sometimes a person gets epilepsy due to a brain tumor or infection. Remember, after the age of 20, if a person develops epilepsy and is also suspected of having cancer, then another T-scan is essential. In addition, chest X-ray of such patients is also important, as lung cancer is more likely to be diagnosed early. It is important to note that epilepsy medications are not always effective. Although severe epileptic seizures are difficult to treat, some precautions are effective. To keep the epilepsy patient away from fire, water, machinery and furniture. At the end of the seizure, the patient should be laid on a crotch and it should be reassured that nothing is stuck in the trachea and nothing should be put in the patient’s mouth during the seizure. If the duration of the seizure is more than 5 minutes. In case of fainting or relapse before regaining consciousness, take the patient to the nearest hospital immediately so that timely medical aid can be provided. The patient usually remains in a state of semi-consciousness for 30 to 60 minutes after the visit and also feels nervous, so do not leave him alone during this time, until he regains full consciousness.
As far as medication is concerned, seizures or convulsions in children do not last long. Because children also have seizures due to a high fever, they are given antidepressants. In addition, medication that reduces seizures for a period of about six weeks to six months is also used regularly. Of course, anti-epileptic drugs in adults are recommended for at least six months to two years. If recurrence of seizures occurs after giving up the medicine, then some patients use this medicine for many years and some for a lifetime.
By: Dr. M. Sabir Sikandar