If gastrointestinal fluid and nutrients remain in the esophagus for a long time, then in medical terms this disease is called GERD, meaning Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. In this disease, the esophagus becomes swollen and there is a burning sensation in the chest. Several factors work to prevent gastric contents from entering the esophagus, the most important of which is the esophageal sphincter or valve, which is located at the bottom of the esophagus. This valve closes naturally after food enters the stomach. This process is carried out under a systematic system, but if for any reason the system is disturbed, the valve does not work and the esophagus is constantly filled with acids and pus, resulting in swelling and acidity in the esophagus. Causes of GERD include decreased sphincter tone, decreased flow of acid down the esophagus, and decreased gastrointestinal motility. In addition, in some cases, pregnancy, obesity, overeating, certain drugs, smoking, chocolates, poultry and spicy foods, coffee, alcohol consumption and hernia, etc. can be a catalyst. The main symptoms of this disease in the chest. There is irritation and acidity, which causes chest pain, which is often felt up to the throat and back. The pain usually starts after eating and is accompanied by bending, weight lifting and severe mental and physical stress. Adopts Sometimes the pain is exacerbated by eating dinner and going to bed immediately, but getting up, sitting or walking can reduce the severity. Other symptoms include heartburn, pain below the ribs, sometimes felt up to the shoulders and back, food particles coming into the mouth, salty belching, nausea, vomiting, difficulty swallowing, earache and chest pain. Included. Dry cough is often annoying at night, because the nutrients in the esophagus that are asleep enter the respiratory tract by bouncing, which causes coughing. By the way, these symptoms are also found in patients who suffer from gallstones, so it is better to have an ultrasound done on the advice of a doctor.
GERD is diagnosed on the basis of symptoms. Tests are usually not needed to diagnose the disease in people 45 years of age or younger, however, difficulty eating, rapid weight loss, Barium Swallow and Manometry tests are recommended if symptoms such as loss of appetite, vomiting of blood or discoloration of the stool appear. Also for endoscopy, esophageal and gastric ulcer, obstruction, constipation and cancer diagnosis. It can be helpful. There are many complications of this disease, the most common of which are ulcers in the esophagus and narrowing of the esophagus. This narrowing is caused by a swelling in the esophagus for a long time and if the narrowing of the esophagus becomes more severe, then there is severe difficulty in swallowing food (dysphagia), however water and other liquids can be used easily. Note that if the esophagus becomes narrow or constricted, it can be corrected by endoscopy. In addition, other complications include esophageal cancer, anemia, changes in voice due to inflammation of the airways, cough and pneumonia, etc. It is important to adopt a positive lifestyle to prevent this disease. , Control weight, avoid smoking. Patients with GERD should avoid heavy foods, poultry, spicy foods, soft drinks, alcohol, tea, coffee and chocolates. Avoid lifting and bending heavy objects, especially lying down immediately after eating. Always keep the head of the bed high, so that food can easily pass into the esophagus when lying down. In addition, it is better to eat dinner about two or three hours before going to bed. In some cases H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori). The so-called bacterium also causes bloating in the esophagus, as it causes the stomach to secrete large amounts of acid from the stomach. Specific drugs are used to treat H. pylori for 10 to 14 days. There are also effective medicines available to control the bloating of nutrients, sour and sour water in the mouth and acidity, which can be used with the advice of an authorized physician. The sphincter at the bottom of the esophagus can be repaired by Fundoplication. Surgery can also be done in case of esophageal or gastric cancer.
Dr. M. Sabir Sikandari